"Static vs. Dynamic" Is the Wrong Question for Working Programmers

Posted on June 18, 2016

It’s common to ask, “Is there evidence that programmers write safer code or are more productive when using a static or a dynamic language?” It’s also common to write really terrible blog post answers to this question. I’m not going to link to examples, but let’s just say that general comparisons of “mainstream dynamic language A” with “mainstream static language B” don’t give a lot of insight into the broader question.

Programmers who say they prefer static or dynamic languages are often interested in specific language features rather than static or dynamic type systems, per se.

Yet reasonable people do want to know the answer. Can we shed more light on the topic?

Science Cannot Give Us a Definitive answer – Yet!

Well-designed, peer reviewed research on human interaction with programming languages is uncommon. Static typing is better studied than most other PL features but tends to examine very specific claims with fairly small effects. Good studies which do exist at all, narrow as their findings might be, are generally not reproduced by anyone. There is an effort to fix this, but for now any argument claiming a “scientific” answer to this question is suspect.

There Aren’t Two Distinct Buckets of Languages Named Static and Dynamic

To be honest, I don’t think this question is answerable. In part this is because, increasingly, I think the notion of a strict distinction between static and dynamic languages is less than helpful. It’s somewhat more useful to talk about what sort of features the language’s type system has.

In general, we should strive for strong typing, and adopt static typing whenever possible. –Luca Cardelli and Peter Wegner

From the point of view of the working programmer, calling a language “statically typed” confuses a number of different and important ways that both languages and tooling can vary.

Why? Ask yourself these questions:

What Is a Statically Typed Language?

Is Elm a statically typed language? Is Java a statically typed language?

Elm’s type system is substantially more powerful than Java’s, and eliminates entire classes of bugs which plague Java applications such as dereferencing null pointers and inexhaustive switch blocks.

If both languages are called “statically typed” and yet the two languages’ type systems do such different things, then how much value is there in lumping them into the same specific bucket?

Indeed, even the word “type” itself is used in multiple, not entirely compatible senses in computer science.

Tomas Petricek argues:

Rather than seeking the elusive definition of what is a type (which does not exist), I believe that we should look for innovative ways to think about and work with types that do not require an exact formal definition.

What Is a Dynamic Language?

Is Erlang a statically typed language? Many would say no, but what if I run Dialyzer first? Sure, I’m not getting the runtime performance benefits static typing can bring, but if types are inferred statically at build time and can fail the build, then I’m getting at least some help from static typing. So in this case the distinction between statically and dynamically typed has more to do with the tooling I might be using than the language itself. That’s interesting!

You can even infer static types from unit tests instead of code itself!

Whatever “Static” and “Dynamic” Are, Production Languages Often Have Both

C# has dynamic. Racket has Typed Racket. Java has reflection. Clojure has core.typed.

Statically typed languages typically check certain types of errors at compile time and other types of errors at runtime.1 Which types of errors are checked when varies by programming language. For example, Idris can statically prove that a program does not divide by zero, whereas C# cannot.

Manuel Chakravarty wrote a much more detailed (and technically rigorous) examination of this idea.

Well, OK, But Surely There Must Be a Formal Distinction, Right?

Less so than you might think.

Terms like “dynamically typed” are arguably misnomers and should probably be replaced by “dynamically checked,” but the usage is standard.
– Benjamin C. Pierce, Types and Programming Languages2

Thus we see that the canonical untyped language, Λ [the untyped lambda calculus], which by dint of terminology stands in opposition to typed languages, turns out to be but a typed language after all. Rather than eliminating types, an untyped language consolidates an infinite collection of types into a single recursive type. Doing so renders static type checking trivial, at the cost of incurring dynamic overhead to coerce values to and from the recursive type.
- Robert Harper, Practical Foundations for Programming Languages3

One can consider a “dynamic language” as a language which has fewer statically checked types (namely, one) than a “static language.”

What Does Static Typing Really Do?

Given some programming language, you can imagine “static typing” as a feature (or, more properly, a family of features) the language designer could add to an otherwise untyped or dynamic language which might deliver one or more of the following benefits:

It might also have one or more of the following drawbacks

However, every single one of these benefits and drawbacks could also come from adding a different feature (distinct from “static typing”) to the language.

For example, “proof that certain kinds of dynamic errors are impossible” could come via model checking or formal verification. “Increased verbosity” is hardly limited to “static languages”; most “dynamic languages” are more verbose than SML or Haskell.

Instead of asking, “Should the whole world use a ‘statically typed’ language?” we could ask “In which cases would it make sense to write formal proofs of (at least some parts of) our programs?”

If “Static vs. Dynamic” Is the Wrong Question, Then What Is the Right Question?

If you’re a working programmer, then the right question is:

How can my languages and tooling help me be a better programmer?

Follow-up questions might be:

These are difficult questions, because you can’t really answer them without experience with diverse languages, programming communities, and ecosystems. Zealots need not apply, but be kind to excited newbies!

Importantly, programming is still in its infancy. We are still discovering new methods of designing code. We must keep an open mind, because programmers 50 years from now will laugh at whatever we choose. Today, you can design your code using top-down, bottom-up, test-first, type-driven, or a multitude of other techniques. The design methodologies of the next decade probably haven’t been invented yet.

@raichoo @kamatsu8 let's have some imagination about where languages and tools might go if we let go of how current tools trade things off

— Edwin Brady (@edwinbrady) June 17, 2016

Comments on this post elsewhere


1 Harper, Robert, Practical Foundations for Programming Languages, 2nd Edition, §6.3

2 Pierce, Benjamin C. Types and Programming Languages, p. 2

3 Harper, §21.4

4 Harper, §6

5 Rémy, Didier, Type systems for programming languages, p. 29

Tags: programming languages